Safety and Benefits of Fish Oil

OSLO, NORWAY. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 configurations cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained from the diet. The most common PUFAs are linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oils. Linoleic acid is an n-6 configuration while linolenic acid, EPA and DHA are of the n-3 configuration. Because of the unsaturated nature (multiple double bonds) of PUFAs they are prone to oxidation which makes them rancid and potential initiators of chain reactions which can lead to oxidation of fat and cholesterol molecules in the body. This so-called lipid peroxidation reaction is believed to be implicated in atherosclerosis, cancer and inflammation.

Dr. Jan Eritsland, a cardiologist at the Ulleval University Hospital, has just released a major study dealing with the safety of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Based on numerous reports published in the medical literature Dr. Eritsland concludes that a high intake of n-3 PUFAs reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease and heart attack and is entirely safe at least up to a level corresponding to 10% of the daily calorie intake. He does caution though that the intake of dietary antioxidants (especially vitamin E) needs to be increased if the PUFA intake is increased. Supplementation with 4 grams/day of highly concentrated fish oil (containing 3.4 g of EPA and DHA) was found to lower triglyceride levels, but had no effect on cholesterol levels or glycemic control (plasma glucose and insulin levels). Although fish oils are known to reduce the tendency of blood to aggregate (clot) a recent major trial showed no difference in bleeding episodes among heart disease patients supplementing with 2 to 5 grams/day of fish oils and the controls. This held true even if the patients were also taking warfarin or aspirin. PUFAs of the n-3 family may help prevent cancer and there is no evidence at all that they promote it. There is, however, some limited evidence that n-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid) may indeed be involved in the initiation or promotion of cancer. Most experts recommend that the intake of linoleic acid not exceed 10% of daily calorie intake. [73 references]
Eritsland, Jan. Safety considerations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71 (suppl), January 2000, pp. 197S-201S

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